Viral Antigens

A viral antigen is a toxin or other substance emitted by a virus that elicits an immune response in its host. A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can be detected by a specific immune response. Morphology and viral structure Viruses are complexes that consist of proteins and an RNA or DNA genome. They lack […]


Microbiology is one of the branches of biology. It is a science that studies the vital activities of various microorganisms at the molecular, cellular, or population level, such as morphological structure, growth and reproduction, physiological metabolism, genetic variation, ecological distribution, and taxonomic evolution. Microbiology is widely used in industrial fermentation, medical hygiene, and bioengineering. History of microbiology Microbiology Since ancient […]