qPCR Adeno-Associated Virus

Resume Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is currently the most popular gene delivery vector for in vivo gene therapy. However, variability in titration methods between different laboratories affects the reproducibility of experiments and the evaluation of safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We describe an optimized protocol for AAV titration, which includes standard preparation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and quantification and treatment […]

Dengue Virus Antigens

Dengue fever virus, abbreviated as DENV, belongs to the Flaviviridae family of the genus Flavivirus. DENV transmitted primarily by mosquitoes often causes mosquito-borne tropical diseases. The DENV-infected host has a symptom, such as high fever, vomiting, headache, muscle and joint pain, and a characteristic skin rash, which usually begins three to fourteen days after infection. People often take two to […]

Ebola Virus Antigens

The Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the five known viruses within the Ebolavirus genus, it belongs to the filovirus family. The Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic and very lethal virus that can cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). The natural host for the virus is unknown, but fruit bats have […]

Adenovirus Antigens

Adenoviruses are members of the Adenoviridae family. They were first isolated in adenoid tissue-derived cell cultures in the 1950s, hence the name. These types of DNA viruses are classified according to 3 main capsid antigens: hexon, penton, and fiber. Adenoviruses are very ubiquitous in humans and in a wide range of vertebrate hosts. More than 50 different adenoviral serotypes have […]

Viral Antigens

A viral antigen is a toxin or other substance emitted by a virus that elicits an immune response in its host. A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can be detected by a specific immune response. Morphology and viral structure Viruses are complexes that consist of proteins and an RNA or DNA genome. They lack […]


Microbiology is one of the branches of biology. It is a science that studies the vital activities of various microorganisms at the molecular, cellular, or population level, such as morphological structure, growth and reproduction, physiological metabolism, genetic variation, ecological distribution, and taxonomic evolution. Microbiology is widely used in industrial fermentation, medical hygiene, and bioengineering. History of microbiology Microbiology Since ancient […]